Python Interview Questions

Introduction to Python:

Python  is one of the most used  programming languages and is interpreted in the nature thereby providing the flexibility of incorporating dynamic semantics. Python  is a free and open-source language with very  clean and simple syntax. This makes it  very easy for developers to learn python. Python  supports object-oriented programming and is most widely  used to perform general-purpose programming. 

Here is the list of most  commonly asked python interview question and answers:

Python Interview Questions for beginners

1. Describe  Python? What are the advantages of using Python ?

Python is  interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language. As a  general-purpose language, it can also be used to build any type of application using  the right tools/libraries. In addition python supports objects, threads, modules,exception,handling,  automatic memory management which help in  modelling the  real-world problems and building applications to resolve these problems.Advantages of Python:

  • Python is  general-purpose programming language which is a simple, easy-to-learn syntax , emphasizes readability and  reduces the cost of program maintenance. The language is also  capable of scripting, completely open-source, and supports all third-party packages encouraging modularities and code reuse.
  • Python is high-level data structures, combined with the dynamic typing and dynamic binding, attracting a huge community of developers for the  Rapid Application Development and deployment.

2. What is meant by dynamically typed language?

Before knowing about  dynamically typed language, we should understand about what is typing . Typing refers to  type-checking in the programming languages. In strongly-typed language, such as Python, “1” + 2 will result in a type error since these languages don’t allow for “type-coercion” .Type-checking can be done stage wise:

  • Static – static Data Types are checked before execution.
  • Dynamic -dynamic  Data Types are checked during execution.

Python is  interpreted language, executes at each statement line and  type-checking is done during execution. Hence, Python is called as Dynamically Typed Language.

3. Describe an Interpreted language?

 Interpreted language executes its statements line by line.  programming Languages like Python,R, Javascript,  PHP, and Ruby are prime examples of the Interpreted languages. Programs written in  interpreted language runs directly from  source code, with no intermediary compilation steps.

4. Explain PEP 8 and why is it considered important?

PEP stands for the  Python Enhancement Proposal.  PEP is an official design documented  providing information to  Python community, or describing a  feature for Python or also  its processes. PEP 8 is especially useful ,since it documents the style guidelines for the Python Code. Apparently contributing to  Python open-source community requires you to follow above style guidelines strictly and sincerely.

5. Scope in the Python?

Every object in the Python functions within a scope. Scope is  block of code where an object in the  Python remains relevant. Name spaces uniquely identify all the  above objects inside a program.These namespaces also have a scope defined  where you could use their objects without using any prefix. A few examples of this scope created during the code execution in Python are :

  • local scope refers to  local objects available in  current function.
  • global scope refers to objects available throughout  code execution since their inception.
  • module-level scope refers to  global objects of current module accessible in  program.
  • An outermost scope refers to all  built-in names callable in  program. The objects  used in this scope are searched at last to find the name referenced.

6. What are the lists and tuples? What is  key difference between the two terms?

Both Lists and Tuples are  sequence data types that allows to   store a collection of objects in the Python. Objects stored in both the sequences can have different data types. Here lists are represented with square brackets ['sara', 6, 10.19], while tuples represented with parantheses ('ansh', 5, 0897).
But the real difference between the two?The key difference between the two is while lists are mutabletuples  are immutable objects. This means that the lists can be modified, appended or sliced on  go but tuples remain constantly  and cannot be modified in any manner. You can run  following example on Python IDLE to confirm the generated difference:

my_tuple = ('sarada', 6, 4, 0.97)
my_list = ['sarada', 6, 4, 0.97]
print(my_tuple[0])     # output => 'sarada'
print(my_list[0])     # output => 'sarada'
my_tuple[0] = 'anshu'    # modifying tuple => throws an error
my_list[0] = 'anshu'    # modifying list => list modified
print(my_tuple[0])     # output => 'sarada
print(my_list[0])     # output => 'anshu'

7. What are common built-in data types  used in Python?

Several built-in data types  are there in Python. Although, Python doesn’t require  any data types to be defined explicitly during the variable declaration type errors are likely to occur if the knowledge of the data types and their compatibility with each other been neglected. Python provides isinstance() and type()  functions to check  type of these variables. These  type of data  can be grouped into  following categories-

  • None Type:
    None keyword  which represents the null values inthe  Python. Boolean equality operation can  also be performed using this None Type objects.
Class Name: Description:
NoneType Represents  NULL values in Python.
  • Numeric Types:
    These are three different numeric types – integers, numbers,floating-point  and complex numbers. Additionally, booleans are  sub-type of integers.
Class Name Description
int Stores integer are literals including  octal,hex and binary num as integers
float Stores literals  which containing decimal values and exponent signs as floating-point no’s
complex Stores complex numbers in  form (A + Bj) and has attributes: imag and real
bool Store boolean value (True / False).

sequence Types:

  • According to the Python Docs, there are three most  basic Sequence Types –  tuples, lists,and range objects. Sequence types consist the in and not in operators defined for their traversing  elements. These operators shares   same priority as the comparison operations.
Class Name Description
list Mutable sequence used to store the collection of items.
tuple Immutable sequence used to store the collection of items.
range Represents an immutable sequence of the numbers generated during execution.
str Immutable sequence ofthe  Unicode code points to store textual data.

 The standard library also includes additional types of  processing:
1. Binary data and
2. Text string

  • Mapping Types:

Mapping object can  be map hashable values to the random objects in the Python. Mapping objects are mutable and  also there is currently one and only  standard mapping type, the dictionary.

Class Name Description:
dict Stores are comma-separated list of key: value pairs
  • Set Types:
    Python has 2 built-in set types – set and frozensetset type mutable and supports methods like add() and remove()frozenset type  immutable and can’t be modified after creating.

Note: set is mutable and thus cannot be used as key for a dictionary. On the other hand, frozenset is immutable and thus, hashable, and can be used as a dictionary key or as an element of another set.

  • Modules:
    Module is an additional built-in type supported by the Python Interpreter. It supports one special operation, i.e., attribute accessmymod.myobj, where mymod is a module and myobj references a name defined in m’s symbol table. The module’s symbol table resides in a very special attribute of the module __dict__, but direct assignment to this module is neither possible nor recommended.
  • Callable Types:
    Callable types are the types to which function call can be applied. They can be user-defined functions, instance methods, generator functions, and some other built-in functions, methods and classes.
    Refer to the documentation at for a detailed view of the callable types.

8. Describe pass in Python?

The pass keyword is represents a null operation in Python. which  is generally used for  purpose of filling up empty blocks of code which may be execute during runtime but has  to be written. Without  pass statement in  following code, we may run into some type of errors during code execution.

def myEmptyFunc():
   # do nothing
myEmptyFunc()    # nothing happens
## Without the pass keywords
# File "<stdin>", line 2
# IndentationError: expected an indented blocks

9. Explain  modules and packages in the Python?

Python packages and Python modules are of  two mechanisms that permits  for modular programming in Python. Modularizing has  several benfits

  • Simplicity: Working on  single module helps you to focus on relatively small portion of  problem at hand. This makes the development easier and less errors.
  • Maintainability: Modules are designed to enforce the logical boundaries between the different problem domains. If they are written in  manner that reduces the interdependency, it is always less likely that modifications in  module might impact other parts of  program.
  • Reusability: Functions defined in  module can be easily reused by other parts of  application.
  • Scoping: Modules typically defines a separate namespace, which  can help to avoid confusion between identifiers from other parts of program.

In general MODULES , are simple Python files with a  extension .py  and can have set of  classes,functions,  or variables defined and implemented. They can be imported and initialized once by  using the import statement. If partial functionality   needed, import the requisite classes and functions using from foo import bar.

Packages allow the  hierarchial structuring of the module namespace using the  dot notation. As, modules help to avoid clashes between global variable names, in  similar manner, packages helps to  avoid clashes between the module names.
Creating a package is easy since it makes the use of  system’s inherent file structure. So just stuff modules into a folder and there you  will have it, the folder name as the name of  package . Importing a module or its contents to  this package requires the package name as the  prefix to the module name joined by a dot.

10.Explain global, protected and private attributes in Python?

  • Global variables are  the public variables that are defined in  global scope. To use this  variables in the global scope inside a function, we  must use the global keyword.
  • Protected attributes are the attributes defined with an underscore pre-fixed to their identifier like  _sara. They can still be accessed and modified from outside  class they are defined in .A  responsible developer should refrain from doing so.
  • Private attributes are the attributes with double underscore prefixed to their identifier like  __ansh. They cannot be accessed or modified from  outside directly and  also will result in AttributeError if such an attempt  made.

If you are looking to get certified in Python? Check out the Scaler Topic’s course  with certification. 

Most frequently asked AWS interview questions


AWS provides various range of cloud-based services like analytics, computing power, storage,content delivery, machine learning , databases,   and more. It is the most popular leading cloud providers globally and is widely used by    startups,businesses, governments, and  also individuals.

1.How to change the key pair for ec2 instance?

2.How to change the ec2 instance from one zone to another zone &one region to another region?

3.Explain SNS?

4.Is it possible to reset windows password using AWS?

5.How to perform Horizontal  and Vertical Auto Scaling?

6.How to  back up  your ec2 instance?

7.How to create Cloud Formation in templates for automatic instance  creation & termination?

8.Steps to restore  data from an Amazon RDS?

9.procedure to connect  Linux instance using user name  and password?

10.How to enable MFA of IAM account?

11.How to create application load balancer for the  host based and path based routing?

12.How to enable the load balancer to auto scaling groups?

13.How to  establish push  and pull Docker images to ECR?

14.How to create the ECS services connect to application load balancer?

15.Explain steps to  create the IAM rules and permission from console and command line?

16.Explain  enabling  cloud watch metrics, alerts and notifications?

17.Procedure to enable cloud trail event for multi zones?

18.Procedure  to deploy  PHP based application with the RDS and high availability in elastic beanstalk?

19.Describe how to run python based lambda function?

20.Explain  enabling VPN access on premises cloud?

21.Steps to enable web application to  firewall and shield for your website?

22.Explain configuring cloud front and provide the edge points and edge servers for content distribution?

23.Describr how to migrate VM to AWS?

24.How to migrate database -> RDS?

25.How to run the code pipeline?

26.How to integrate the cloud formation template deploy from code pipeline / GitHub and Jenkins?

27.Procedure to integrate the Jenkins with aws ec2 instance?

28.How to Enable lambda functions  for Load Balancers?

29.List types of ELB S in AWS?

30.Describe Auto Scaling policies?

31.What is pre-requisites for ec2 VPC peering?

32.Differences between NAT instance and NAT gateway?

33.Differences between  INTERNET gateway and NAT gate way ?

34.Explain route table?

35.What are the default route table contents?

36.Explain how to rotate keys automatically?Deploy code from code deploy to ECS container?

37.What is the Code Star?

38.Explain  X-ray?

39.What is Cloud 9?

40.What is the Glacier?

41.What is the Snowball?

42.What is the AWS Fargate?

43.What is the AWS Serve less Deployment?

44.Expalin  On-demand Instance, Spot Instance, and Reserved Instance different from each another?

45.Why do we make subnets?

46.Describe  internet gateway?

For more Aws related interview questions  and to learn AWS from professiona

Frequently asked questions of Digital Marketing

Some of the frequently asked questions (FAQ) about digital marketing: 

1.What is meant by  Digital Marketing?

Digital marketing refers to use of digital channels, Like  internet, social media, email, and search engines, to promote any  products or service.

2.Mention the key components of digital marketing?

Key components include Search Engine Optimization(SEO), Search Engine Marketing(SEM ), content marketing, social media marketing (like facebook , instagram), email – marketing, and more.

3.What is SEO, and why SEO is  important?

SEO ( Search Engine Optimization) It is the practice of optimizing a website to rank higher in the search engine results, increasing organic  traffic.

4.How does SEO differ from SEM?

SEM (Search Engine Marketing) involves IN paid advertising to appear in search results, while SEO  focused on organic rankings.

5.What is content marketing, and why is it essential?

Content marketing involves  in creating and sharing the valuable content to attract and engage targeted audience. It builds brand authority and trust.

6.What is social media marketing  include?

Social media marketing is  use of social platforms to connect with  audience, build brand awareness, and promote the products or services.

7.What is email-marketing, and how does it work?

Email marketing involves in sending targeted emails to a list of subscribers to promote their products, share the updates, and build customer relationships.

8.Benefits of digital marketing?

Benefits include  wide reach, precise targeting, real-time analytics,cost-effectiveness and the ability to track ROI

9.How can I measure success of my digital marketing efforts?

Analayse  Key performance indicators  like website traffic, conversion rates, click-through rates , and return on investment are used to measure the success.

10.What are common digital marketing tools and platforms?

Tools include like Google Analytics, Google Ads,  email marketing,Facebook Ads Manager, platforms like Mailchimp, and SEO tools like SEMrush and Moz .

11. Does digital marketing suitable for all types of businesses?

Digital marketing can benefit wide range of businesses, but the strategies  may vary based on the typoe of industry and target audience.

12.Describe  future of digital marketing?

Future of the digital marketing is expected to involve more personalization, AI driven automation continued growth in mobile and social media marketing.

For more FAQ’s related to Digital Marketing course 

Office Error

When you see an office error, don't get panic, just try these steps!!

Many might have seen the errors in office programs!! The only concern is to know what happens to your data. I am sure many have this question in their mind when they see an error.

Some assume that they lose everything. Office error may look long and srumbled numbers which you can’t imagine. Searching on internet, you may get few suggestions asking for repair or reinstall.

But let’s know about root causes for the office errors and find the way out how to fix them. We will tell you those information over here regarding your data in the below steps.

Something went wrong

Something went wrong, when you install office or open office programs. You see this message, when you have broken office program files. How do you call them broken?

There is no clue when a program breaks it’s properties. it happens when third party factors effect your office apps. But what are those third party programs and factors. We can’t blame every third party program  that could change your office working behavior.